Italian Higher Education System
The Italian Higher Education System includes:
- The Higher Education for Fine Arts, Music and Dance sector (AFAM- acronym for Alta Formazione Artistica e Musicale)
- Higher Technical Institutes (ITS – acronym for Istituti Tecnici Superiori)
Universities are also divided into private and publicly funded institutions. The quality of the education, however, is comparably high at all institutions of higher education.
International students can apply to Italian Universities only if they have an educational qualification that allows them to enroll. This qualification of secondary education has to be awarded after a study period of at least 12 years. If the educational qualification has been awarded in less than 12 years, it has to be accompanied by the academic certification of the examinations taken or a post-secondary title to compensate for any missing years of secondary education (check Recognition of Qualifications)
Universities offer strong theoretical and academically-oriented degree programmes and a broad range of disciplines. Some universities are specialized in certain subject areas, such as Polytechnics.
The University sector is organized as follows:
- Undergraduate Degree: Laurea
- Graduate Degree: Laurea Magistrale
- Postgraduate Degree (PhD): Dottorato di Ricerca
- Specializing Masters and Continuing Education Programs
Undergraduate Degree: Laurea
The Laurea, which is equivalent to a Bachelor of Science in the European university system, is an undergraduate degree obtained after a three-year programme of study. The requirement for admission to first cycle degree (laurea triennale/corso di laurea di primo livello) is the diploma awarded at the end of secondary school. Students are admitted if they have a high school diploma or another qualification taken abroad and recognized in Italy.
Entry to undergraduate degree programs can either be restricted or open, or can be subject to a motivational test or entry examination.
Once the student obtains the Laurea, he can either directly enter the job market or continue his studies applying to the Laurea Magistrale (equivalent to Master of Science) or to a 1st level university Master’s Degree.
Graduate Degree: Laurea Magistrale
The Laurea Magistrale degree, which is equivalent to a Master of Science in the European university system, is obtained after two years of graduate studies and aims to provide rigorous, advanced training in specific sectors. A first cycle degree is required for admission. They offer training in specific sectors and have a focus on professional skills.
Those who already hold a Laurea in a different field and want to obtain a Laurea Magistrale certificate must first obtain the necessary credits. Students are admitted with a degree or a qualification taken abroad and recognized in Italy.
Once completed, the Laurea Magistrale program gives access to a Doctoral program.
The University sector also offers Lauree Magistrali a Ciclo Unico, they can be five or six year degree program.
Lauree Magistrali a Ciclo Unico are usually offered in the following fields of study: Medicine, Veterinary Medicine, Pharmacy, Architecture, Law. (see the complete list of lauree magistrali a ciclo unico available in Italy on this webite.
Postgraduate Degree (PhD): Dottorato di Ricerca
The PhD degree is the highest level of university education and requires that candidates pass a comprehensive examination and complete original research leading to a dissertation. The PhD academic qualification is obtained after a program of study and research lasting at least three years under the supervision of a Board of Professors. The aim of this course is to provide students with a high level of education in order to prepare students for college faculty and research scholar positions, or for other careers that require advanced knowledge and research skills.
Specializing Masters and Continuing Education Programs
Some universities also offer a specialization or post-graduate degree course aimed at increasing students’ professional education (1st and 2nd level university Master’s Degrees).
These courses aim to provide the knowledge and skills required for carrying out the functions required by particular professional activities. They qualify people to work in such professions and aim to train specialists for certain professional sectors.
Please remember that this qualifications are not part of the European university system as defined in Bologna in 1999 and the qualifications are not always internationally recognized.
University studies are based on a system of university credits (Crediti Formativi Universitari) to evaluate and measure the workload teaching hours and the higher education effort of every single course.
Credits also measure the student workload.
The credits represent the total student workload which is required to pass the examination and include class attendance, classwork, laboratory work and individual study (It is also possible to obtain credits for other training courses, or project works or theses, internships, foreign languages, basic computing skills, training in communication and public relations and group work).
One credit corresponds to a workload of about 25 hours and the yearly workload for an average study course corresponds to about 60 credits which is equivalent to 1500 hours.
Each subject is assigned a number of credits which the student can obtain after passing the final examination. Exams are graded using a grading scale of 30, where 18 is the minimum passing grade and 30 cum laude the highest grade.
It is strictly necessary to obtain 180 credits (CFU) to accomplish the Undergraduate Degree (Laurea Triennale) and subsequently you must achieve other 120 credits (CFU) to accomplish the Graduate Degree (Laurea Magistrale). Lauree Magistrali a Ciclo Unico require 300 or 360 credits (CFU) to accomplish the Graduate Degree.